Maintaining a healthy weight is not easy, but it is possible. This clinical review covers various factors influencing successful long-term weight loss maintenance.
The World Health Organization’s statistics indicate that most of the world’s population now lives in a country in which overweight and obesity contribute to more mortality than underweight. This trend has led to a worldwide obesity rate that has tripled since 1975. If this rate of overweight incidence continues, nearly half of the world’s adult population will be overweight or obese by 2030.
Approaches for reducing this epidemic are multi-factorial and must consider long-term sustainability and safety. This clinical review examines the research supporting behavioral/lifestyle and environmental factors that can impact the success of long-term weight loss maintenance. These include: eating habits, physical activity, behavioral modifications, support systems, the gut microbiota, and various dietary patterns including low-carbohydrate and low-fat approaches; intermittent fasting; and low-carb ketogenic approaches.