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Introduction Our human ancestors evolved and developed adaptive mechanisms that allowed survival during periods of food availability and scarcity with seasonal fluctuations of both types and quantities of nutrients.1 In this context, modern humans now face a different challenge with increased food abundance and food accessibility. Not only has the number of commercial food establishments increased dramatically in the last few decades, a large percentage of nonfood establishments (e.g., retail outlets, gas stations, office buildings, etc.) also have made food…

Introduction Our human ancestors evolved and developed adaptive mechanisms that allowed survival during periods of food availability and scarcity with seasonal fluctuations of both types and quantities of nutrients.1 In…

Introduction Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are lipid molecules composed of a glycerol backbone and three medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) whose chain lengths are between 6 and 12 carbon atoms.1 Long-chain triglycerides (LCT), on the other hand, contain long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) whose chain lengths are 14 or more carbon atoms.1 Because the digestion and absorption of MCT involve fewer biological steps than LCT (see mechanisms of action), MCT are easily absorbed and more rapidly transported to target organs for utilization, and…

Introduction Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are lipid molecules composed of a glycerol backbone and three medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) whose chain lengths are between 6 and 12 carbon atoms.1 Long-chain triglycerides…

Estrogen affects the growth, differentiation, and function of numerous tissues throughout the female body—not just those involved in reproduction. This hormone plays an important role in bone health, protects the cardiovascular system, and influences behavior and mood. While appropriate levels of estrogens are essential for good health, several studies conclude that as inappropriate exposure to estrogen increases, the risk of several cancers—including breast, ovary, prostate, and thyroid—also increases.1-7 Furthermore, disproportionate estrogen exposure can lead to other health problems, including polycystic…

Estrogen affects the growth, differentiation, and function of numerous tissues throughout the female body—not just those involved in reproduction. This hormone plays an important role in bone health, protects the…

Introduction Humans are constantly exposed to synthetic environmental chemicals found in household items, industrial products, pesticides, herbicides, plastics, flame retardants, paints, electrical equipment, cosmetics, and food preservatives. Many of these compounds are endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that interfere with the endocrine system, including adipose tissue. EDCs may alter physiology during the whole life span of an individual, from fetal development to adulthood.1 Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and bisphenol A (BPA) are the most well-known classes of…

Introduction Humans are constantly exposed to synthetic environmental chemicals found in household items, industrial products, pesticides, herbicides, plastics, flame retardants, paints, electrical equipment, cosmetics, and food preservatives. Many of these…

What is collagen? The most abundant structural protein in the body, collagen is responsible for the structure of skin, connective tissue, tendons, bones, and teeth. The major collagen types are I, II, and III, which form the structural fibrils of tissues.1 Function As the main group of structural proteins of the extracellular matrix, collagen proteins form elastic molecular networks to strengthen tendons and elastic sheets that support skin and internal organs. They also function as biologically active components of tissues…

What is collagen? The most abundant structural protein in the body, collagen is responsible for the structure of skin, connective tissue, tendons, bones, and teeth. The major collagen types are…

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Biosynthesis of EPA and DHA from other fatty acids is poor, and as a result EPA and DHA are considered “conditionally essential” nutrients required in the diet for optimal health.1 EPA and DHA nutrient gap On average, the daily intake of EPA and DHA, plus estimated EPA equivalents (endogenous biosynthesis from other fatty acids) from food and supplements, among American adults is 170 mg per day.2 Ninety-percent…

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Biosynthesis of EPA and DHA from other fatty acids is poor, and as a result EPA…

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1® and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14® are probiotic strains with clinically demonstrated effects on women’s urogenital health. The combination has shown positive benefits in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV), urinary tract infections (UTI), and vulvovaginal candidiasis (yeast).1 L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 with Tinidazole in women diagnosed with BV In a randomized study of 64 women ages 16 to 51 years diagnosed with BV (confirmed by the Amsel criteria and the Nugent scoring), the participants were administered…

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1® and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14® are probiotic strains with clinically demonstrated effects on women’s urogenital health. The combination has shown positive benefits in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV),…

Introduction The development of probiotics targeted for their specific actions on host cells (including metabolism and intracellular signaling pathways) to confer targeted health benefits and outcomes represents a relatively recent advance in our understanding and use of beneficial bacteria for health. Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 is a thoroughly researched probiotic selected for its effects on gut barrier function.  

Introduction The development of probiotics targeted for their specific actions on host cells (including metabolism and intracellular signaling pathways) to confer targeted health benefits and outcomes represents a relatively recent…

Sulforaphane is a type of isothiocyanate and a metabolite of glucoraphanin—a phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.1 Studies show that high consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality.2 Mechanism of Action Sulforaphane appears to be a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant pathway Keep1/Nrf2/ARE and other anti-inflammatory mechanisms, including inhibition of the Nfkb pathway (Figure 1).3-4 Sulforaphane works to protect cells against harmful agents by helping…

Sulforaphane is a type of isothiocyanate and a metabolite of glucoraphanin—a phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.1 Studies show that high consumption of cruciferous…

Ketosis is a natural metabolic state that occurs when there is an absence or shortage of dietary carbohydrates (sources of glucose) consumed as the main energy source for the body. While in ketosis, the body shifts to using fat as the primary energy source. The body increases the breakdown of fat into ketone bodies which are readily used by most tissues, including muscle and brain, as the main fuel.1

Ketosis is a natural metabolic state that occurs when there is an absence or shortage of dietary carbohydrates (sources of glucose) consumed as the main energy source for the body.…

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