Type 2 diabetes is an increasing global health issue, which benefits from ongoing research in medical nutrition therapy. All attempts to introduce a modified diet, reduced caloric intake and physical activity have been shown to assistance patients experiencing glucose toxicity. Impaired glucose tolerance causes many health issues, including cardiovascular disease.
This review covers the criteria for diagnosis of diabetes and prediabetes research completed by Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD, Medical Director of the Obesity Clinical Program, at the Joslin Diabetes Center. Dr. Hamdy’s review includes HbA1C level shifts in patients with type 2 diabetes as a result of increased protein consumption and medical nutrition therapy through the use of proprietary medical foods.
At diagnosis, many patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) will have had aberrant glucose metabolism for over a decade. During this period the disease may progress unchecked, leading to worsening insulin resistance, β cell dysfunction and other pathophysiologic abnormalities. Indeed, complications associated with T2D, such as cardiovascular disease, microalbuminuria and retinopathy have been observed in people with impaired glucose metabolism who did not meet the threshold for diagnosis of T2D. Even prediabetes is characterized by maximal or near-maximal insulin resistance and significant loss of β-cell function.