HDL cholesterol plays vital roles in lipid biology and coronary heart disease pathophysiology. The main function of HDL is to scavenge for and carry LDL cholesterol away from the arteries and back to the liver, for redistribution, metabolism, and excretion. A high HDL measurement was previously thought to represent high reverse cholesterol transport, conferring heart-protective benefits for patients. But newer research indicates a more complicated HDL picture—where five different HDL forms and unique functionalities are at play. In this MAPS talk, Dr. Houston shares the latest insights in HDL cholesterol testing and how to treat HDL issues with diet and targeted nutraceuticals.