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Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Biosynthesis of EPA and DHA from other fatty acids is poor, and as a result EPA and DHA are considered “conditionally essential” nutrients required in the diet for optimal health.1 EPA and DHA nutrient gap On average, the daily intake of EPA and DHA, plus estimated EPA equivalents (endogenous biosynthesis from other fatty acids) from food and supplements, among American adults is 170 mg per day.2 Ninety-percent…

Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Biosynthesis of EPA and DHA from other fatty acids is poor, and as a result EPA…

Introduction The development of probiotics targeted for their specific actions on host cells (including metabolism and intracellular signaling pathways) to confer targeted health benefits and outcomes represents a relatively recent advance in our understanding and use of beneficial bacteria for health. Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118 is a thoroughly researched probiotic selected for its effects on gut barrier function.  

Introduction The development of probiotics targeted for their specific actions on host cells (including metabolism and intracellular signaling pathways) to confer targeted health benefits and outcomes represents a relatively recent…

Sulforaphane is a type of isothiocyanate and a metabolite of glucoraphanin—a phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.1 Studies show that high consumption of cruciferous vegetables is associated with reduced risk of total and cardiovascular disease mortality.2 Mechanism of Action Sulforaphane appears to be a potent activator of the cellular antioxidant pathway Keep1/Nrf2/ARE and other anti-inflammatory mechanisms, including inhibition of the Nfkb pathway (Figure 1).3-4 Sulforaphane works to protect cells against harmful agents by helping…

Sulforaphane is a type of isothiocyanate and a metabolite of glucoraphanin—a phytonutrient found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, Brussels sprouts, and cabbage.1 Studies show that high consumption of cruciferous…

Ketosis is a natural metabolic state that occurs when there is an absence or shortage of dietary carbohydrates (sources of glucose) consumed as the main energy source for the body. While in ketosis, the body shifts to using fat as the primary energy source. The body increases the breakdown of fat into ketone bodies which are readily used by most tissues, including muscle and brain, as the main fuel.1

Ketosis is a natural metabolic state that occurs when there is an absence or shortage of dietary carbohydrates (sources of glucose) consumed as the main energy source for the body.…

Vitamin D Vitamin D is an essential, fat-soluble vitamin that acts as a steroid hormone and plays a central role in many components of our skeletal and extraskeletal health. Vitamin D is naturally present in some fish, mushrooms, and eggs; in select fortified foods such as milk products; and also in the form of dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. It is also synthesized in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) rays from sunlight.1

Vitamin D Vitamin D is an essential, fat-soluble vitamin that acts as a steroid hormone and plays a central role in many components of our skeletal and extraskeletal health. Vitamin…

Recent discoveries have identifed a class of lipid mediators, identifed in circulation and tissues throughout the body,1,2 known as specialized pro-resolving mediators, which function as ”resolution agonists” and actively coordinate the resolution of infammation.1-3 However, some individuals exhibit insufficient levels of endogenous specialized pro-resolving mediators—thought to be related to lifestyle behaviors, dietary choices, age, or negative health conditions—in response to an inflammatory challenge.1-3 As a result, the resolution activities can be negatively impacted, leading to an unresolved chronic inflammatory response.…

Recent discoveries have identifed a class of lipid mediators, identifed in circulation and tissues throughout the body,1,2 known as specialized pro-resolving mediators, which function as ”resolution agonists” and actively coordinate…

Introduction Increasing evidence is now pointing to a crucial factor that links the intestinal microbiome with regulation of body weight and body fat mass. Dysbiosis—an imbalance within the microbiome—is now recognized to have wide clinical impacts, with links established to a diverse set of adverse health conditions including obesity. Genomic content and diversity in the microbiome has been shown to be different in obese individuals as compared with lean individuals. A growing body of literature is supporting the use of…

Introduction Increasing evidence is now pointing to a crucial factor that links the intestinal microbiome with regulation of body weight and body fat mass. Dysbiosis—an imbalance within the microbiome—is now…

ERr 731® is a nonhormonal therapy to alleviate the uncomfortable symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes. With more than 30 years of safe, effective use in Europe (backed by decades of postmarketing surveillance data), ERr 731® has been clinically demonstrated, through extensive research, including randomized controlled trials, to safely and effectively reduce menopausal symptoms. 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) 109 perimenopausal women Heger M, et al. Menopause. 2006.1 At 12 weeks, ERr 731® group had a significant reduction in total…

ERr 731® is a nonhormonal therapy to alleviate the uncomfortable symptoms of menopause, including hot flashes. With more than 30 years of safe, effective use in Europe (backed by decades…

Magnesium L-threonate is the magnesium salt of a naturally occurring vitamin C metabolite L-threonic acid. Magnesium, a divalent cation, is important for neuronal activity as it is a co-factor for enzymes present in the neurons or glial cells.1,2 Magnesium and Cognitive Health Two observational studies found that individuals with a diet rich in magnesium have a lower risk of cognitive decline: 86% reduced risk in an Australian cohort of 1,400 elderly people between 60-72 years of developing mild cognitive impairment…

Magnesium L-threonate is the magnesium salt of a naturally occurring vitamin C metabolite L-threonic acid. Magnesium, a divalent cation, is important for neuronal activity as it is a co-factor for…

Inflammatory Immune Responses Inflammation is an essential biological response that may be triggered by a variety of stimuli, including tissue injury, pathogens, toxins, and oxidative stress. Inflammation underlies many normal physiologic processes, yet it also underlies many pathologic states—especially when inflammatory responses become excessive or chronic. Inflammation initiation pathways involve several enzymes, transcription factors, and signaling molecules (i.e., chemokines and cytokines) that can be modulated by a variety of agents, including select botanical ingredients. Mechanisms of Immunomodulation by Curcumin, Xanthohumol,…

Inflammatory Immune Responses Inflammation is an essential biological response that may be triggered by a variety of stimuli, including tissue injury, pathogens, toxins, and oxidative stress. Inflammation underlies many normal…

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