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by Christopher Moulton, PhD Introduction At this point in the pandemic, clinicians are aware of the most typical symptoms related to COVID-19 infection: persistent fever, a dry cough, and shortness of breath. However, to a lesser extent a variety of other symptoms have been reported in coronavirus-afflicted patients, including fatigue, myalgia, rhinorrhea, and a sore throat.1 Notably, the first documented American patient with the novel coronavirus experienced nausea and diarrhea concurrent with cough, which occurred prior to any respiratory distress.2…

by Christopher Moulton, PhD Introduction At this point in the pandemic, clinicians are aware of the most typical symptoms related to COVID-19 infection: persistent fever, a dry cough, and shortness of breath. However,…

Blogs, Foundational, Functional Medicine, Integrative, Nutritionists

by Lewis Chang, PhD What is cytokine storm? Cytokines are a diverse group of polypeptides secreted by cells that have numerous physiological functions, including regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. The rapid response of our highly complex immune system against pathogens or cellular damage is vital for maintaining homeostasis and health. Cytokine storm refers to a situation in which the protective immune response goes out of control, leading to unregulated release of excessive amounts of cytokines that spill into systemic…

by Lewis Chang, PhD What is cytokine storm? Cytokines are a diverse group of polypeptides secreted by cells that have numerous physiological functions, including regulation of inflammatory and immune responses. The rapid response…

Articles, Foundational, Functional Medicine, Integrative, Nutritionists

COVID-19 April 6, 2020 Update On April 2nd, the number of COVID-19 cases reached 1 million worldwide. The US currently has over 300,000 reported cases, more than any other country in the world. Amid the uncertainty around the pandemic, the US is also learning so much more about the novel coronavirus. Epidemiologists and infectious disease experts recently published what they had learned based on existing data in JAMA Viewpoint. Below are some of the highlights.1 How does SARS-CoV-2 spread? The…

COVID-19 April 6, 2020 Update On April 2nd, the number of COVID-19 cases reached 1 million worldwide. The US currently has over 300,000 reported cases, more than any other country in the world.…

Blogs, Foundational, Functional Medicine

by Michael Stanclift, ND Vitamin C helps with immune system function, but due to its ubiquity, it is often underappreciated clinically. With the current COVID-19 pandemic clinicians are in search of clinical tools that are relatively easy to acquire, safe, and effective. Vitamin C (AKA ascorbic acid/ascorbate) plays an important role in immune function with Swiss Army knife-like utility. We are one of the rare animals that lack the ability to make vitamin C within our body, so we must…

by Michael Stanclift, ND Vitamin C helps with immune system function, but due to its ubiquity, it is often underappreciated clinically. With the current COVID-19 pandemic clinicians are in search of clinical tools…

Articles, Cardiometabolic, Foundational, Functional Medicine, Integrative

COVID-19 April 2, 2020 Update Currently, the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection heavily relies on RT-PCR-based viral RNA detection method. Although the test has high sensitivity (i.e., true positive rate), there are challenges with the test that may cause delay of a confirmed diagnosis, thereby impacting timing of treatment and ability to control further spread of the virus. Here are some variables: Test sample collected at different stage of infection: The viral RNA test has high sensitivity in the early stage…

COVID-19 April 2, 2020 Update Currently, the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection heavily relies on RT-PCR-based viral RNA detection method. Although the test has high sensitivity (i.e., true positive rate), there are challenges with…

Articles, Cardiometabolic, Foundational, Functional Medicine, Integrative

COVID-19 March 31, 2020 Update Keeping the immune system healthy is on most people’s minds during the current COVID-19 pandemic. According to epidemiological data, smoking increases susceptibility and severity of flu caused by the influenza virus.1 And experimental data have shown that cigarette smoke directly inhibits epithelial antiviral pathways and increases replication of influenza virus.2 There are also data showing higher mortality among smokers in the 2012 outbreak caused by a coronavirus known as MERS-CoV.3 However, as SARS-CoV-2 is a…

COVID-19 March 31, 2020 Update Keeping the immune system healthy is on most people’s minds during the current COVID-19 pandemic. According to epidemiological data, smoking increases susceptibility and severity of flu caused by…

Blogs, Cardiometabolic, Foundational, Functional Medicine

by Kara Fitzgerald, ND It looks like pyroptosis, a novel form of inflammatory cell death, may be a cause of the increased virulence of COVID-19 (although it was seen in SARS-CoV-1, too). Pyroptosis initiates the upregulation of inflammasome NLRP31 via caspase-1 proteases in the canonical pathway. Other caspases can also upregulate the inflammasome initiated by a variety of triggers. The end results of NLRP3 upregulation include IL-1β and IL-18 production and cell death. In COVID-19 patients, higher serum IL-1β (a…

by Kara Fitzgerald, ND It looks like pyroptosis, a novel form of inflammatory cell death, may be a cause of the increased virulence of COVID-19 (although it was seen in SARS-CoV-1, too). Pyroptosis…

Articles, Foundational, Functional Medicine, Integrative, Naturopathic

COVID-19 March 30, 2020 Update Most of us are exercising physical distancing, avoiding running unnecessary errands, and other control measures in order to minimize person-to-person transmission of COVID-19. The goal is to “flatten the curve,” to delay the rapid spread of the novel coronavirus, thereby reducing the surge of illnesses in a very short time and allowing the healthcare system to breathe, to accommodate, to provide proper patient care. However, how long can (or should) schools remain closed, businesses shut,…

COVID-19 March 30, 2020 Update Most of us are exercising physical distancing, avoiding running unnecessary errands, and other control measures in order to minimize person-to-person transmission of COVID-19. The goal is to “flatten…

Articles, Foundational, Functional Medicine

COVID-19 March 27, 2020 Update Two Research Letters published online March 26th in the JAMA described 3 cases of possible vertical transmission.1,2 In the first report,1 an infant girl was delivered by cesarean in a negative-pressure isolation room. She had no symptoms and was immediately quarantined. The mother with COVID-19 wore an N95 mask and did not hold the infant. Test results 2 hours after birth showed higher IgM antibody level. Because IgM antibodies do not usually appear until 3-7…

COVID-19 March 27, 2020 Update Two Research Letters published online March 26th in the JAMA described 3 cases of possible vertical transmission.1,2 In the first report,1 an infant girl was delivered by cesarean…

Articles, Foundational, Functional Medicine

COVID-19 March 25, 2020 Update According to the first published article analyzing currently available cases in China, the overall finding is: children at ALL ages were susceptible to COVID-19, but their clinical symptoms were generally less severe compared to adult patients.1 Between January 16 and February 8, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention recorded 2,143 cases with COVID-19 who were under the age of 18. Researchers from Shanghai Children’s Medical Center (Shanghai, China) proceeded to analyze the characteristics…

COVID-19 March 25, 2020 Update According to the first published article analyzing currently available cases in China, the overall finding is: children at ALL ages were susceptible to COVID-19, but their clinical symptoms were…

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